A 2.1. Holes
A 2.2. Hair remains
A 2.3. Striations
A 2.4. Traces of jagged action
A 2.5. Veining, vein evidence, drainage of blood vessels
A 2.6. Variation in thickness
A 2.7. Opacity, transparency
A 2.8. Splitting
A 2.9. Variation in colour or surface appearance, matte, semi-matte, glossy
A 2.10. Presence of grain layer
Holes can develop during all the stages of parchment production. In most cases, the holes develop when the parchment is stretched.
Mechanical damage tends to occur easily during the final stretching and scraping. The most frequent types of damage include cracks and holes, which were often repaired by darning in the process of producing the parchment.