A 2.1. Holes
A 2.2. Hair remains
A 2.3. Striations
A 2.4. Traces of jagged action
A 2.5. Veining, vein evidence, drainage of blood vessels
A 2.6. Variation in thickness
A 2.7. Opacity, transparency
A 2.8. Splitting
A 2.9. Variation in colour or surface appearance, matte, semi-matte, glossy
A 2.10. Presence of grain layer
Total or partial existence of the grain layer.
In the case of parchment made into a single-sheet document, the recto and verso sides were often treated differently and therefore were visually distinct. A grain layer on the verso side of the document has been occurring more frequently since the 15th century. For a variety of reasons, the existence of this layer can significantly accelerate the degradation of the parchment.