A 2.1. Holes
A 2.2. Hair remains
A 2.3. Striations
A 2.4. Traces of jagged action
A 2.5. Veining, vein evidence, drainage of blood vessels
A 2.6. Variation in thickness
A 2.7. Opacity, transparency
A 2.8. Splitting
A 2.9. Variation in colour or surface appearance, matte, semi-matte, glossy
A 2.10. Presence of grain layer
Grain layer completely removed throughout the entire surface.
Parchment could be made using either one-sided skin splitting combined with machining on the other side or two-sided splitting. Soaked sheepskin and goatskin could be split particularly well. When properly split, the surface thickness of parchment was usually more uniform. As a result of sloppy splitting, the grain layer on the verso side can be partially retained, and this accelerates the degradation of the parchment.