A 2.1. Holes
A 2.2. Hair remains
A 2.3. Striations
A 2.4. Traces of jagged action
A 2.5. Veining, vein evidence, drainage of blood vessels
A 2.6. Variation in thickness
A 2.7. Opacity, transparency
A 2.8. Splitting
A 2.9. Variation in colour or surface appearance, matte, semi-matte, glossy
A 2.10. Presence of grain layer
Traces of processing on the parchment surface typical of a scrapper with a serrated edge.
Scrapping marks resulting from the use of various tools to thin the skin are often visible on historical parchment documents from the Middle Ages. The linear texture caused by scrapers with serrated edges created on the surface of the parchment is very common. Traces of scrapers with serrated cutting edges are clearly visible in denser and thicker places that therefore required more thinning. These included the areas around the limbs, scars, neck and spine. Linear texture is very visible when lit from the side or rear.