A 2.1. Holes
A 2.2. Hair remains
A 2.3. Striations
A 2.4. Traces of jagged action
A 2.5. Veining, vein evidence, drainage of blood vessels
A 2.6. Variation in thickness
A 2.7. Opacity, transparency
A 2.8. Splitting
A 2.9. Variation in colour or surface appearance, matte, semi-matte, glossy
A 2.10. Presence of grain layer
The traces of a scrapper (grooves, streaks) made with a curved blade on the surface of the parchment.
Various methods and tools were used the scrape the layers of skin used for the production of parchment. Due to careless processing, the half-moon-shaped scrapper used to thin the skin could significantly damage the parchment. The cracks and recesses are clearly visible when viewed under transmitted light.