B 3.4. Ruling

Marking the manuscript’s lines of text on the surface.

In addition to free-form writing, the locations of the handwritten texts were also marked using ruling. The location of the columns and rows was marked on the parchment in various ways, i.e. with the help of pricking marks, or ruling mechanically or with ink.

The method involved applying slight pressure with mechanical tools or writing implements.

After ruling and formatting the text, the parchment was removed from the writing frame and made into a historical record.