A 1. Damages and characteristics that result from the properties of the skins
Here those damages and characteristics of parchment are dealt with that are visually discernible on the case of historical parchments, and the causes of which are related to the properties of the skins. These damages were also included that have resulted from not taking into account the differences in properties that can exist on a single skin when cutting a parchment sheet out of a skin and formatting it into a document, a folio, etc.
The properties of the skin can significantly impact the condition of the parchment when it is preserved and handled.